For our collections we only choose high quality interior fabrics whose properties and features are carefully investigated. The product information of our fabrics is available for our customers on our website and on our fabric samples.
Area of use
To facilitate the choice of the correct interior fabric we have developed a user friendly scale that determines the durability of the fabric. We examine the characteristics of our fabrics and indicate the recommended use on a 5-degree scale. The recommendation has taken into account all properties that affect the durability of the fabric, including bonding, structure, pilling value, colour fastness, durability and sealing resistance. With the help of this scale we aim to avoid the incorrect assessment basis for durability, where only stressing of the wear resistance, i.e. the Martindale value is taken into account.
The scale describes the operating range of the fabric. With light home use, we refer to furniture that is exposed to low usage and low sunlight in the home environment. For example a bedroom armchair or valuable antique furniture. While demanding home use refers to for example a living room sofa used daily by a family with children and is exposed to sunlight. With a demanding commercial use we refer to furniture in a commercial environment that is constantly exposed to wear, for example an office chair.
Usage scale for fabrics
|Decoration, curtains, home use|
|Upholstery fabric, lightweight home use|
|Upholstery fabric, general home use|
|Upholstery fabric, demanding home use|
|Upholstery fabric, very demanding home use and commercial use|
Weight (g / m2)
Bulk density refers to the weight of fabric per square meter of fabric. The higher this number is the thicker the fabric is usually. The weight significantly affects the feel of the product but it has no effect on the abrasion resistance of the fabric.
The durability of the fabric is measured with different scratching or rubbing test devices. According to the European Standard, the abrasion resistance of textile is defined by the Martindale method. For fabrics with piles, the Stoll test is used and in the United States the Wyzeenbeck method is used.
The abrasion resistance depends both on the material of the fibers and on the bonding. The tests allow you compare different materials, but they do not give a prediction how long the product will last. In real life use the fabric is usually subjected to a different stress than can be simulated in a test environment. Therefore the use of abrasion resistance test values as a measure of durability of fabrics should be treated with caution. Double values for the Martindale test do not mean that the lifetime of the fabric doubles.
The abrasion resistance of the fabric is also affected by the quality of the furniture itself, for example the shape and the filling used.
The Martindale method is designed to measure the abrasion resistance of woven and knitted fabrics without pile. The fabric to be examined in the test is attached to a circular substrate that is rubbed against a standard wool fabric in a rotating motion. The abrasion resistance result is the amount of revolutions reached before two threads in the tested fabric are cut off.
Although the Martindale method is not intended to test fabrics with pile (velvet fabrics and non-woven fabrics such as Alcantara), it has become more commonly used to determine the abrasion resistance of these type of fabrics. The fact that two yarns are cut off when you test these fabrics does not necessarily define the wear resistance of the fabric. The result of the Martindale test should be the number of turns completed when critical changes occur in the fabric and the fabric breaks (the Martindale endpoint).
In practice the durability of furniture fabrics can be divided into three categories:
basic requirement = at least 15,000 revolutions
high requirement = at least 25,000 revolutions
very high requirement = at least 50,000 revolutions
EN 1021-1 or SL2 = Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture. Fire safety classification required by the fabrics in the home environment, so-called cigarette test.
EN 1021-2 or SL1 = Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture. Fire safety classification required by the fabrics for contract applications, so-called flame test.
According to the European standard, the EN classification is becoming more common while the SL classification decreases in use.
Pilling is the formation of fuzzy balls of fiber on the surface of a fabric that remain attached to the fabric. There are several different devices that examine how easy these fuzzy balls are formed on the surface of the fabric. The pilling is rated on a scale from 1 to 5. The pilling value that we indicate is after 2000 abrasion resistance. Most upholstery fabrics pill to varying degrees. For contract applications fabric should meet grade 4 minimum.
1-2 = heavy pilling
3 = moderate surface pilling
4-5 = slight pilling to no change
A fabric’s degree of resistance to the fading effect of light.
Protect the fabric from direct sunlight. Although all of our fabrics are tested and we only select fabrics that have good light fastness qualities, the sunlight will fabrics over time. Especially cotton fabrics have the tendency to fade, while synthetic fibers will better withstand sunlight. Strong sunlight may also affect the stability of the pile. Reverse the back and seat padding of the furniture sometimes to even out the effect.
The colour lightfastness characteristics are graded on a gray scale of 1 to 5 or a blue scale 1 to 8 to determine the lightfastness of fabrics exceeding the value of 5 (gray scale). The test determines how much the colour changes under the influence of light. The results are compared to the blue scale consisting of eight fabrics that are coloured with blue shades of different brightness.
4 = basic requirement, good colour lightfastness
5-6 = Very good colour lightfastness
6-8 = Extremely good colour lightfastness (blue scale only) – suitable for special applications, see below.
Outdoors and in boats, as well as some public spaces, fabrics require a very high lightfastness (6-8 blue scale). Our collections contain special fabrics that meet these requirements.
Colour differences in fabrics between batches from different colour baths are inevitable for all textiles. Because of this the fabric colour may slightly differ from the colour map of the sample. Therefore, when upholstering you must ensure that all fabrics are from the same colour bath.
When the fabric is washed, it shrinks or stretches as a result of its properties. The mechanical change in the laundry, the detergent quality, the washing temperature and the drying method affect the final result. It is important to follow the washing instructions. In addition, the fabric should always be put in the right shape when drying after washing. This reduces the fabric’s shrinkage. The general practice is that less than 3% shrinkage is not specified for interior fabrics.